I have been a bit hesitant to install Linux on my work notebook, but I finally bit the bullet and installed Linux Mint along side the Windows 8.1 install, and have managed to get Citrix Receiver running under Chromium. I was initially getting an error about a missing file (but it worked in Firefox), and a bit of Googling led me to these instructions which worked like a charm. I've got gigs worth of files on my Windows partition, but now I can start moving them over and eventually get rid of Windows completely :)
A note about distro choice: I'm not a huge fan of Ubuntu since the switch to Unity, but Linux Mint is known to work with Secure Boot and UEFI. So I chose the MATE desktop, as it's more-or-less a continuation of the old Gnome 2 desktop.